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:: Volume 12, Issue 4 (3-2020) ::
2020, 12(4): 53-76 Back to browse issues page
Microbial Galacto-oligosaccharides: Production, Biological Effects and Applications
Monir-sadat Shakeri *, Ali Amini Beidokhti
Research Institute of Food Science and Technology, Department of Food Biotechnology, Mashhad, Iran.
Abstract:   (1073 Views)
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are carbohydrate-based nutrients that can have health-related physiological activities, including production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), energy transfer in colonocytes, and cell growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. GOSs have been identified as prebiotic compounds in animals and humans and have been used successfully in a wide range of food products such as bakery products, infant formula, dairy products and beverages. GOSs can be synthesized and produced enzymatically from soybean seed and lactose from cow's milk. The choice of the appropriate technology for the process of lactose hydrolysis or GOS production depends on the nature of the substrate and the properties of the enzyme. Reactor settings are another important factor that can affect the efficiency and composition of GOS mixtures. In terms of process parameters, the amount of GOS produced by galactosidase can be improved in different ways: (a) increasing the concentration of reactants, (b) reducing the water activity of the reaction, (c) changing the reaction equilibrium towards the final product by removing product in the environment and (d) change the synthesis conditions. In this paper, various aspects related to the production of GOS, including their types and the function of its beneficial compounds, their role as prebiotics and its industrial production through microbial methods, as well as strategies to improve the production process is discussed. The physical, chemical, physiological effects and applications of GOS are also summarized.
Keywords: Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS), Prebiotics, Enzymatic Synthesis, Infant Formula.
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Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/01/4 | Accepted: 2021/02/9 | Published: 2021/02/18
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Shakeri M, Amini Beidokhti A. Microbial Galacto-oligosaccharides: Production, Biological Effects and Applications. Journal of Biosafety. 2020; 12 (4) :53-76
URL: http://journalofbiosafety.ir/article-1-368-en.html

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Volume 12, Issue 4 (3-2020) Back to browse issues page
فصل نامه علمی ایمنی زیستی Journal of Biosafety
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